(spinning machine of chemical fibre) is a machine that makes a fibre-forming polymer solution or melt into a filament. Depending on the method of fibre spinning, spinning machines are divided into three types: wet spinning machines, melt spinning machines and dry spinning machines.
They are suitable for spinning viscose fibres, acrylics, vinyls, etc. The main feature is the polymer solution from the spout hole extrusion, in the solidification of the solidification tank solidified into primary fibres, spinning speed is low, often in the 100 m / min below, high-speed spinning speed of up to 200 m / min or so. Wet spinning machine and divided into short fiber and long fiber two.
① short fiber spinning machine: spinning the original liquid from the tube into, by the metering pump precise metering, filtered by the filter into the spinneret, from the spinneret hole extrusion fine flow into the coagulation bath, coagulation after the primary fiber through the guide disc gathered into a bundle and then by washing or stretching. Short fiber spinning machine is characterized by the spinneret in the spinneret cap (plate) a large number of holes, usually 3000 to tens of thousands of holes.
② Filament spinning machine: the difference with the short fiber spinning machine is the increase of the coiling mechanism after the coagulation of the silk strip. The filament strips from the coagulation bath are washed and passed through a guiding disc and into a high speed centrifugal jar through an up and down reciprocating filament funnel. Such a spinning machine is called the centrifugal jar spinning machine; if the silk strip through the guide disc winding on the tube, it is called the tube spinning machine; such as in the winding before part of the post-processing process, called semi-continuous spinning machine; if the spinning and post-processing of all processes are continuous in the spinning machine is completed, then called continuous spinning machine. Viscose cord production mostly uses continuous spinning machine. Spinning filament with the spinneret is generally below 150 holes, spinning the cord fibre with as many as 3000 holes.
Melt spinning machines
Spinning equipment for polyester, nylon and polypropylene. The characteristic is that the fine stream of melt is solidified into fibres by the cold air, which is blown evenly to the fine stream after a high efficiency filter, regulating valve and flow guide device. Spinning speed is high, generally 600 to 1500 m/min. There are also two types of melt spinning machines.
① Filament spinning machine: polymer chips from the hopper into the screw extruder after being molten and propelled by the screw through the conduit into the spinning box. Melt in the box by the spinning pump metering transported to the spinneret (plate), by the spinneret hole extrusion of molten fine flow in the spinning window encounter cold air cooling and curing into fibres, oiled by the winding mechanism winding on the tube. The number of holes in the filament spinneret is generally several to several dozen. When spinning cord up to about 200 holes, spinning brown silk when only a hole, PP Spunmelt Machine then the melt fine stream with a water bath cooling solidification into silk. Melt spinning filament spinning machine in the 1970s the trend is: multi-head spinning, that is, each spinning part is equipped with 2, 3, 4, 6 or even more spinning head, in order to improve the machine’s output; high-speed spinning, spinning speed of 3500 ~ 4000 m / min, or even up to 5000 m / min above; large volume, each cylinder volume generally up to 10 kg to dozens of kg; continuous, spinning and stretching in A spinning machine is completed at the same time, there are also spinning, stretching, deformation processes are completed in a spinning machine (referred to as BCF production), in polypropylene and nylon production has been applied. These machines are compact and have a small footprint and high production efficiency. In addition, the degree of automation of spinning machines is also increasing.
② short fiber spinning machine: compared with filament spinning machine, its characteristics are the use of multi-hole number of large spinnerets, the general number of holes for 400 ~ 1100, has been developed for multi-hole spinning, the number of holes up to 4000; in the spinning canal using the ring blowing or ring blowing plus side blowing air cooling blowing system, each spinning parts without separate winding mechanism, each part of the silk strip by the guide disc or small rotor, by the traction machine will be silk bundle The silk bundle is guided to the feed wheel by a traction machine and then laid out in a silk drum. The capacity of each barrel can reach 450 to 2000 kg. When producing staple fibres in large synthetic fibre plants, the direct spinning method is often used. The melt spinning short course spinning machine without spinning canal has appeared.
Dry spinning machine
For filament production of acrylics and vinyls. The raw spinning fluid is fed into the canal by a delivery tube through a filter, metering pump and spinneret. The fine stream formed encounters hot air in the canal, the solvent evaporates, the polymers in the fine stream solidify into fibres, and the filament bundles are then wound into a certain volume. Dry spinning speed is generally 200 to 800 m/min. In order to adapt to the needs of special spinning process, the 70s and the emergence of dry – wet spinning machine