A brake is a gadget that has the capacity of dialing back, halting or continuing moving parts (or moving apparatus) at a stop. It is a mechanical part that stops or decelerates a moving part in hardware. It is regularly known as a brake or brake. Brakes are fundamentally comprised of an edge, brake parts and control gadgets. A few brakes are likewise furnished with programmed change gadgets for the freedom of the slowing down parts. To diminish the slowing down force and the size of the design, the brake is generally introduced on the fast hub of the gear, however for huge hardware with high wellbeing prerequisites (like mine derricks, lifts, and so forth) it ought to be introduced on the low speed hub near the functioning piece of the hardware.
The downstream ventures of the modern brake industry are essentially lifting and transportation hardware, metallurgical gear, mining hardware, development and designing apparatus, wind power and atomic power hardware, ships and seaward weighty industry, and so on Profiting from the rejuvenation and improvement of these enterprises, the modern brake industry will introduce one more round of economical and solid advancement potential open doors. China’s modern brake industry will in any case keep a yearly development pace of 10%-20% before very long.
As per the “China Brake Industry Market Demand and Investment Planning Analysis Report Foresight”, China’s “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” advancement determination diagram on the advancement of key regions across the improvement of the significant sending, top of the line hardware fabricating, new energy, new materials and other key arising enterprises will stay the critical region of China’s enthusiastic turn of events. The country’s determination of the gear producing industry will be helpful for advancing the advancement of China’s brake industry. Furthermore, as the economy keeps on keeping up with stable development in 2011, China’s GDP will be 9.5% in 2011, the vehicle creation and deals circumstance is relied upon to keep on acquiring an enormous increment; the complete interest of the public auto market is relied upon to arrive at 20 million units in 2011. An extensive judgment shows that the development pace of China’s car deals in 2011 will be 10%-15%, which will drive the advancement of the brake business request market. It is normal that the market size of China’s brake industry will in any case keep a yearly development pace of 15%-25% in the following five years.
With the rejuvenation and improvement of the hardware fabricating industry, the creation of homegrown brakes has additionally expanded altogether, and the business income of the brake business has developed all the while; because of the poor start, frail specialized establishment and restricted capital venture, China’s brake items are for the most part low-final results, and a couple of driving undertakings in the business comply with autonomous advancement and increment interest in innovative work, and are creating toward medium and very good quality items with high mechanical substance, and the piece of the pie of medium and top of the line items in brakes is progressively expanding. The portion of the overall industry of medium and very good quality items is step by step expanding, and the productivity of medium and top of the line brake undertakings is on a vertical pattern; while low-final result makers are encountering a descending pattern in costs because of various makers and wild rivalry, while the costs of steel and other significant unrefined substances are fluctuating, and their benefit development is dialing back. 
Brakes have arisen because of the advancement of present day modern hardware and an assortment of new primary sorts, of which caliper plate brakes, attractive powder brakes and electromagnetic brakes are the most broadly utilized. The particular characterizations are as per the following.
1、 Friction brakes, which can be partitioned into plate brakes, outer square brakes, inner development shoe brakes, band brakes, incorporated band brakes, twofold shoe brakes, multi-shoe brakes, straightforward band brakes, single circle brakes, multi-circle brakes, fixed caliper brakes, drifting brakes, and so on
2、 Non-grinding brakes, which can be isolated into attractive powder brakes, attractive whirlpool momentum brakes, water vortex ebb and flow brakes, and so on
Adjusted Power Booster Brake
Forestalling the quest for adjusted slowing down implies seeking after a decent and predictable slowing down power on the wheels while slowing down the vehicle. The two sides of the front wheels are steady; it can forestall directional run-off and the two sides of the back tires are predictable; it can keep the body from sliding sideways and losing the tail. Assuming that a vehicle brakes on snow and ice, downpour and wet streets, run-off and following will make the vehicle let completely go to differing degrees, and assuming two circumstances happen simultaneously, ordinary street slowing down will likewise make the vehicle go all the way wild. When a weighty vehicle is wild, the results can be much more genuine. Along these lines; to stay away from significant auto collisions and to guarantee the security of individuals’ lives and property, weighty vehicle vehicles should be solidly dispensed with from all “non-adjusted nature” of the vehicle brakes. The brakes run crazy and lose the tail.
Solid slowing down power
The absolute slowing down power = unique slowing down power + self-expanding power. At the point when the decent brakes work, a self-expanding slowing down power framed by the change of frictional power into mechanical power is made, and after the mix of the two slowing down powers, the all out slowing down power can be expanded by around 40%.
A crucial answer for the issue of broken brake drums
A burst brake drum can cause wheel slowing down disappointment, which can prompt driving security. All vehicles fitted with adjusted supporter brakes are astounded that a long-standing issue of broken brake drums has at last been effectively tackled. Adjusted slowing down makes the drum surface equally pushed, diminishes the compressive pressure per unit region, lessens warm breaking and makes the mechanical strength of the drum less defenseless to harm, so the burst issue is settled. Later on, brake drums are for the most part rejected by regular mileage. The help life is multiple times that of the first brake.
Rubbing cushions ought not be squandered
The brake stack of the first brakes; with a greatest contact surface of something like 80% and conflicting wear on the two shoes, are completely supplanted once the most slender end is set up. It is an incredible pity to take a gander at the thick piece cushions. Adjusted brakes have 100 percent contact surface beginning to end and wear uniformly, with equivalent thicknesses of scrap cushions. By volume or weight of wear, an additional a third must be worn off. Therefore China’s main brake saves more brake cushions.
Keeping up with pivot load quality
The brake is mounted on the hub lodging, the brake drum is mounted on the wheel center, and the wheel center is mounted on the half-shaft conduit through an orientation, which is the hub of the vehicle. The fair brake pivot disposes of the running pressure inclination and stress convergence of the driving component and expands the upkeep of the hub’s heap bearing quality setting aside cash, time and an incentive for cash
The presentation of a conveyance vehicle’s slowing mechanism changes drastically when it is overhauled, multiple times its worth as far as brake drums and grating cushions alone. In the long haul, it can save a lot of cash in material and support costs as well as a lot of exertion and time. Also the expanded interest in adjusting a couple of balancers is not exactly the cost of purchasing a large portion of a brake drum, completely exhibiting that it is profoundly savvy and lessens breakdowns. The assistance life of the pivot centers, course and half-shaft conduits is broadened dramatically.
The running brake (foot brake) works with deceleration and halting during the time spent pushing ahead, not simply keeping the vehicle fixed. The stopping brake is possibly utilized assuming the running brake falls flat. Whenever the vehicle is halted, the leaving brake (hand brake) is utilized to keep the vehicle from pushing ahead and in reverse. Subsequent to stopping, as well as utilizing the stopping brake, the vertical slant stopping stuff ought to be placed in first stuff (to forestall in reverse development) and the descending incline stopping stuff ought to be placed backward stuff (to forestall positive progress).
Brakes for cranes in modern brakes are both working gadgets and wellbeing gadgets for cranes. Brakes in lifting components are utilized to lift or lower merchandise to stop flawlessly at the expected tallness, or to control the speed of lifting or bringing down, and in running or luffing systems, brakes permit the instrument to stop flawlessly at the necessary position.
Pressure driven brakes are smooth, protected and dependable, simple to keep up with, low power utilization, long life, no commotion, high recurrence and different benefits.
Our items are broadly utilized in homegrown lifting and transportation, port apparatus, metallurgical hardware, railroad apparatus, water driven hardware, Cake braker mining hardware and different enterprises.
The brake is one of the lift security leaves behind incessant developments, which can make the lift engine quit pivoting without power supply and make the vehicle stop really. An enormous number of mishap cases show that one of the principle explanations behind private injury and demise in lifts is the disappointment of the brake or its own plan absconds, which prompts the lift’s fixing, burial ground lining, slipping and in any event, shearing. In this manner, it is especially essential to fortify the wellbeing review of lift brakes.
- Normal issues, security prerequisites and assessment of the mechanical piece of the brake
- 1.1 Common issues in the mechanical piece of the brake
- The normal issues in the mechanical piece of the lift brake are as per the following.
- (1) The stroke pointer contacts the versatile marker, and the architects of certain producers think about the uniqueness of the establishment of the stroke pointer in a helpless way.
- (2) Long-term use causes the brake tile to tumble off and the attaching to open paste (a few brakes are fortified rather than bolted).
- (3) Aging and crack of the fixing elastic and the fall of unfamiliar articles making the brake jam.
- (4) Rusting of the electromagnet center, making the brake jam.
- (profoundly, making the brake jam.
- (6) Improper assessment and upkeep of the brake by lift support staff.
- 1.2 Safety necessities and assessment of the mechanical piece of the brake
- To tackle the above issues, important public guidelines and norms have advanced comparing wellbeing necessities and assessment principles, as follows.
- (1) When the power supply of the lift or the power supply of the control circuit is lost out of the blue, the brake should deliver adequate slowing down force to stop the vehicle dependably. In this way, the slowing down force is the principle boundary used to guarantee that the running lift stops at the deceleration rate expected by the norm.
- TSG T7001-2009 “Rules for Supervision and Periodical Inspection of Elevators – Traction and Forced Drive Elevators”, Annex A, thing 8.10 requires: “When the vehicle is dumped and climbing at ordinary working pace and the power supply to the engine and brake is removed, the vehicle ought to be halted dependably and without clear twisting or harm. “
- The test is done by bringing the vehicle up to the upper piece of the stroke at typical working velocity with no heap, detaching the fundamental power switch and checking the vehicle halting and deformity harm.
- During the test, the vehicle is stacked with 125% of the appraised burden and goes down at ordinary working velocity, when the vehicle rushes to a lower level station, the power supply to the engine and brake is cut off and the vehicle ought to be dependably halted without clear disfigurement and harm. Normally an or more/short speed analyzer is utilized to test and record the worth on location, and the instrument can show the normal less speed.
- (2) Article 220.127.116.11 of GB7588-2003 requires: “All mechanical pieces of the brake associated with applying slowing down power to the brake wheel or circle will be introduced in two gatherings. In the event that one gathering doesn’t work, there ought to be adequate slowing down power to dial back the vehicle conveying the evaluated burden and going at the appraised speed. The center of the electromagnetic loop is viewed as a mechanical part, while the curl isn’t.” This standard can be deciphered as intending that “all pieces of the brake engaged with applying slowing down power to the brake wheel or circle will be the brake cushion and the pressure spring or mallet creating the slowing down power, which will be partitioned into two gatherings as determined previously. Simultaneously, the centers of the electromagnets, which are something contrary to the pressure springs applying slowing down power to the brake haggle open the brake, should likewise be separated into two comparing gatherings, and there should be no association between the two gatherings of centers, which should act autonomously of one another. The guideline doesn’t underscore two loops, assuming two curls are given it would be two arrangements of brakes.” Therefore during the visual assessment, the equipment portrayed above ought to consent to the necessities. For the capacity test, it is viewed as that one bunch of brake tiles is made to open and the vehicle conveying the evaluated load and dropping down at the appraised speed is permitted to pull the brake off and decide commonly whether the other arrangement of brake tiles permits the vehicle to dial back and drop down.
- As this necessity is GB7588-2003 form, and as indicated by GB7588-1995 prerequisites of the assembling of lifts, its brake electromagnet center is by and large just one, so exceptionally just collectively of brakes rather than two gatherings, so don’t meet the necessities of this condition. Along these lines, in the real examination, for the most part as per the date of appearance as indicated by the “new stepping stool new principles, old stepping stool old norms” way to deal with execution.
- (3) GB7588-2003 segment 18.104.22.168 necessities: “outfitted with manual crisis activity gadget of the lift drive have, ought to have the option to deliver the brake the hard way and have to keep a consistent power to deliver the express.” The test is completed by detaching the primary power supply of the lift, placing the circle wheel on, 1-2 upkeep work force holding the plate wheel, and another support staff utilizing a free brake spanner to deliver the holding brake and do the salvage plate wheel discharge test. Obviously, because of the various sorts of foothold machine starting with one producer then onto the next, the activity technique is somewhat unique. Assuming it is a working gadget with a working power of more than 400N or a machine-room-less lift that is hard to work physically, an electrical working gadget for crisis electric activity ought to be set up.
- (4) For block brakes, GB10060-1993 “Lift Installation and Acceptance Specification”, Article 4.1.10 requires: “The brake is adaptable, and the brake tiles on the two sides ought to be intently and uniformly fitted on the functioning surface of the brake wheel while slowing down, and should leave simultaneously when the brake is delivered, and the normal of the hole at its four corners isn’t more than 0.7mm on each side. “.” Therefore, during the examination, the pivoting portions of the brake should be checked and the pins ought to be adaptable; the moving center should run without sticking when the power is on or off; the brake arms on the two sides of the brake should act similarly, for example open the brake or hold it simultaneously. At the point when the normal of the hole at the four corners of the brake isn’t under 0.7mm on each side, short as far as possible switch, furthest cutoff switch and cushion switch, and lift the vacant vehicle gradually so the stabilizer is totally squeezed into the support. The normal hole between the brake tile and the brake wheel ought to be something like 0.7mm at the four corners.
- (5) The wear of the brake cushion (or brake cushion) ought to be checked every now and again. Assuming that the wear is enormous, the contact surface between the brake tires (or brake cushions) and the brake wheel (plate) will be diminished, bringing about a decrease in slowing down force, which can prompt risky perils, for example, sliding. Figure 1 shows a gravely worn brake cushion. Basically, the brake tile should be even in the power applied to the brake wheel or circle and ought not deliver extra loads on the engine shaft or worm shaft. The brake cushion material ought to be non-combustible and have a specific warm ability to guarantee that the coefficient of erosion stays steady when it is hot. They should be made of materials of adequate strength and great quality, and no unsafe materials, like asbestos, are permitted.
- (6) Brake commotion ought to be tried independently
- 2 Safety prerequisites and investigation of the electrical piece of the brake
- 2.1 Safety prerequisites for the electrical piece of the brake
- As the brake is of the machine-electric sort, the examination of the electrical piece of the brake is likewise vital.
- (1) Measure the temperature ascent of the brake loops when the brake arrives at a thermally steady state under working voltage, as per the footing machine working instrument, load span and cycle. The estimation technique depends on GB 755-2008 “Standards and execution of turning engines”, segment 8.6.2 Resistance strategy for estimation and computation. The temperature ascent of the brake curl ought not surpass 80 K while utilizing Class B protection and 105 K while utilizing Class F. For brakes with uncovered surface temperatures surpassing 6(TC), extra admonition signs ought to be given to forestall consumes.
- (2) The brake curl will be tried to a voltage of 1000V between the conductive part and the ground for a time of one moment, without breakdown.
- (3) The base attractions voltage and the most extreme delivery voltage of the brake solenoid should be estimated after the brake temperature rise test, GB/T 24478-2009 “Lift Traction Machine” specifies that the base pull voltage and the greatest delivery voltage of the brake solenoid ought to be under 80% and 55% of the appraised voltage individually.
- (4) Newer brakes are outfitted with a holding brake observing switch, which will act when the brake is working strangely and the lift is safeguarded from halting, which ensures protected and dependable activity of the brake. Nonetheless, there is no important standard prerequisite, and it is trusted that this will be reflected in ongoing principles to work with support and investigation.
- (5) Another significant point in the electrical piece of the brake is the control circuit of the brake curl. This is summed up in the applicable principles as follows: ① During ordinary activity, the brake should be kept released under constant energisation. (2) Disconnection of the brake flow ought to be accomplished by no less than two separate electrical gadgets, whether or not these gadgets are utilized to detach the fundamental drive engine from the lift.
Therefore, the brake should be checked for a type test certificate and report for upward overspeed protection, a direct rigid connection between the brake and the traction sheave and an electrical device to verify that the brake is working correctly, but not in series with the safety circuit. The braking performance of the upward overspeed protection should also comply with the relevant requirements of Article 9.10 of GB 7588- 2003.
TSG T700丨-2009 requires the lift manufacturer to provide a type test certificate for the main drive unit. The author checked some type test certificates and reports for the main drive unit, all of which include the content of the brake.